Can you identify the redacted references in the quotations excerpted below?
The promising educational technologies? The decades? The years of publication?
Plus ca change? Is it time to end the "long history of optimism" about computers in education? From 1960s CAI to MOOCs, Badges, & iPhones today.
- "In <YEAR>, ...Stanford University <professor> was experimenting with the use of <TECHNOLOGY> to teach reading and writing to California schoolchildren. Despite...he saw almost limitless potential in the technology. 'One can predict that, in a few years, millions of schoolchildren will have access to what Philip of Macedon’s son Alexander enjoyed as a royal prerogative: the services of a tutor as well-informed and as responsive as Aristotle,'”
- "Far from realizing the high ideals of their advocates, <TECHNOLOGY> seem to be reinforcing the advantages of the 'haves' rather than educating the 'have-nots.' Better access to technology and improved basic education are needed worldwide before <TECHNOLOGY> can genuinely live up to their promise."
- "...criticized the 'advocates and prophets' of <TECHNOLOGY> for having made 'extravagant predictions of wonder to come'....in reviewing the research on the effectiveness of <TECHNOLOGY>, ...acknowledged that findings of ‘no significant differences’ dominate the research literature in this area, but that 'it may be useful in small doses as a supplement to regular instruction with regard to elementary skill-drill practices.'"
- "...<TECHNOLOGY> are pushed on parents much as <TECHNOLOGY> were in the late <DECADE>, he said. 'I feel that our public schools are being sold down the river, a river of technology, a river of easy learning.'"
- "...the gap between the information haves and have-nots has widened since the <DECADE>. ... economics is the greatest barrier to interest in and use of <TECHNOLOGY> . ...'To the extent any demographic group becomes excluded from and underrepresented <in use of TECHNOLOGY>, it will also be excluded from the economic fruits that such participation promises.'"
- "As recently as fifteen or twenty years ago, few probably would have imagined the challenges and opportunities facing today's generation of youngsters. It seems as if there exists a heightened pressure these days for educators to prepare their students more pragmatically for the world that they are entering into at an ever younger age. The assertion that we need to delay or altogether prevent the inclusion of <TECHNOLOGY> into modern curricula is not only ill-informed, but hopelessly naive."